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School Desegregation Collections
These collections correspond to the efforts to desegregate schools in Atlanta and throughout the south. This research guide includes collections of politicians, educators, and civic activists who were involved in desegregation.
The collection consists of correspondence, speeches, writings, printed material, scrapbooks, photographs, clippings, and memorabilia. They document Jim Cherry's career as superintendent of schools, his civic activities, his broad interest in education, and honors and awards he received.
John Coe (1896-1974) was a Florida lawyer, who litigated many cases concerning segregation and discrimination. He also served a term as a Florida state senator and chaired the Florida State Progressive Party.
The collection contains Progressive Party materials, personal and professional correspondence as well as case files from his law practice. The case files include materials concerning specific cases involving issues about segregation and discrimination. A list of cases is available upon request.
Constance W. Curry (1933- ) is an author, attorney, community organizer, and political activist. From 1960-1964 she was Director of the Southern Student Human Relations Project of the National Student Association and became the first white female on the executive committee of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
From 1964-1975, she was Southern Field Representative of the American Friends Service Committee. In 1975, she became Director of the Office of Human Services for the City of Atlanta. Her book, Silver Rights, won the 1996 Lillian Smith Award for non-fiction and recounts the story of one rural Mississippi family's struggle for education and for civil rights during the 1960's. Curry's papers include materials relating to her Civil Rights activities, personal papers, and printed material.
The organization worked to establish total participation in the Church by all persons regardless of race, class, or national original. This collection consists of statements of purpose, newsletters, official correspondence, and materials related to the Lovett School segregation controversy.
John Adams Fingers, Jr. was a professor of Education at Colgate University, Brown University and Rhode Island College. Finger served as a consultant to the NAACP for school desegregation cases during the 1960s and 1970s. The collection contains research material and reports collected and written by John A. Finger concerning school desegregation cases from ca. 1960 to 1979. The case files contain notes, reports, and maps, and are roughly arranged by state.
He arrived in Atlanta in 1961 to work there as Southern bureau chief for ABC News. During his time as Southern bureau chief, Good traveled throughout the South covering the civil rights movement. The papers consist of audio recordings. The recordings include speeches; reports from marches, rallies, and clashes over school integration; and interviews of civil rights leaders such as Andrew Young, Martin Luther King, Jr., John Lewis and of Klan Wizard Robert Shelton. The tapes document events in Atlanta, Georgia, Notasulga, Alabama, St. Augustine, Florida, Philadelphia, Mississippi, and Jackson, Mississippi.
In 1964, Griffin worked as deputy director of the U.S. Department of Justice, Community Relations Service. As deputy director, he helped mediate conflicts in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Between 1965 and 1978, Griffin served as the director of the Southern Education Foundation, a foundation dedicated to equal educational opportunities for African Americans in the American South. This collection consists of the personal papers of John A. Griffin. It includes correspondence, reports, audiovisual items, and other material documenting Griffin's work with the Southern Regional Council and the Southern Education Foundation as well as his career as an arbitrator.
ames attended Vanderbilt Univeristy School of Law where she received her J.D. in 1961. After graduating, she worked with Fisher and Phillips in Atlanta on labor-management relations. She left the firm in 1968 ans the following year began volunteer work for the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, a Ford Foundation project that worked to provent confrontations between Civil Rights demonstrators and police. She openedher own firm in 1971. Hames actively engaged cases involving abortion rights, women's rights, school desegregation, employment discrimination, worker's compensation, personal injury, social security, domestic relations, criminal defense, medical malpractice, defense, educational rights for gifted and disabled children, and general civil litigation.
The papers consist of subject files and legal case files. The subject files contain extensive research on legal issues linked to Margie Pitts Hames's major cases, information on her professional life, personal information, and material from her unsuccessful campaign for Georgia Supreme Court Justice in 1982. The series also contains material from Cynthia McKinney's campaign for the House of Representatives in 1992-1993, miscellaneous correspondence, and many materials dealing with the American Civil Liberties Union. The case files include primarily legal documents, depositions, transcripts, correspondence, notes, and evidence. The files provide much information on Equal Employment Opportunity Commission cases, abortion clinics, civil rights in Atlanta, and family law.
A nonpartisan political organization, it encourages the informed and active participation of citizens in government and influences public policy through education and advocacy. The collection consists of papers of the League of Women Voters of DeKalb County (Ga.) from 1943-[ongoing]. The papers include annual reports, correspondence, financial records, minutes, photographs, printed material, and subject files. There are correspondence, reports, printed material, and newsletters about keeping public schools open in Georgia, Atlanta, and DeKalb County. There is also material about the desegregation of the University of Georgia.
He also helped formulate Emory's position on race relations. The collection includes bound volumes, printed materials, sermons, correspondence, and a manuscript of his book The Glenn Memorial Story (1985).
McGill (1898-1969) was the editor-in-chief (1941-1960) and publisher (1960-1969) of the Atlanta Constitution. He was a prominent Southern Civil Rights advocate, who was known as the "Conscience of the South."
The collection consists of family and general correspondence, committee records and correspondence, writings, financial papers and subject files, photographs, scrapbooks, memorabilia, and audiovisual materials. Letters include correspondence with persons involved in the Civil Rights Movement. Topics covered in the subject files include race relations and integration; local, state and national politics, 1948-1968; education and the public schools in the South and Atlanta; the church and the race issue; the Ku Klux Klan and Columbians in Georgia in the 1930s and early 1940s. The collection also includes information on organizations such as the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, the Southern Regional Council, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and segregationist organizations.
These stories were then edited, combined, and consolidated by the editors for publication.
The Atlanta bureau files include press clippings, drafts of stories, handwritten notes, press releases, correspondence, and printed materials. Reporters gathered most of these materials while out on assignment. Newsweek correspondents filed stories about the civil rights movement from Albany, Atlanta, Birmingham, Little Rock, McComb, Montgomery, New Orleans, Orangeburg, St. Augustine, and Winston Salem. There are also subject files on organizations such as the NAACP, SCLC, SNCC, and the KKK, as well as files on prominent individuals like Martin Luther King, Jr.
The papers include correspondence, photographs, printed material, a scrapbook, and writings by Parsons. The bulk of the correspondence is from the late 1990s through 2002 and relates to her book From Southern Wrongs to Civil Rights and its publication.
Notable in the correspondence are letters from the King family, including Martin Luther King, Jr. The printed material, which consists of mostly newspaper clippings, documents education, segregation and the Civil Rights Movement among others. Also in the collection are a small number of photographs, Sara Mitchell Parsons's diaries from 1964 and 1970 and a scrapbook from her 1961 campaign for election to Atlanta Board of Education.
The collection includes files from Paschall's tenure as executive director of the GACHR (1961-1967), and from the Community Relations Commission (1967-1968). The collection includes correspondence, minutes, inter-office memoranda, reports, press releases, and clippings as well as materials relating to the League of Women Voters, National Organization for Women, and other organizations.
Pauley (1905-2003) was an activist for civil rights and social causes. She was active in the League of Women Voters, Georgia Council on Human Relations, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) Office for Civil Rights, Georgia Poverty Rights Organization, and the Southern Regional Council.
The files consist of records relating to Pitts v. Freeman, a DeKalb County school desegregation case, including legal memos, newspaper clippings, transcriptions, expert reports, and other materials relevant to the case.
He was involved in many political, social, civic and professional organizations, including the Georgia Commission on Interracial Cooperation, the Committee for Georgia of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, and the Southern Regional Council. The collection consists mainly of correspondence dealing with Rainey's organizational activities.
Sibley (1888-1986) was a prominent Atlanta lawyer, banker, and civic leader. He was a partner in the Atlanta law firm of King and Spaulding, general counsel to Coca-Cola, president of Trust Company Bank, head of Atlanta's first United Way appeal, and chairman of the General Assembly Commission on Schools, which is known as the "Sibley Commission."
The Sibley Commission sought a way to keep Georgia's public schools open after the U.S. Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision. The collection includes Sibley's personal and professional files, including correspondence, speeches, legal and financial records, photos, and printed items.
Sitton (1925-) worked as the southern correspondent for The New York Times during the late 1950s and early 1960s. During this time, he was widely considered the "dean" of the "Race Beat," the best reporter on the southern civil rights assignment.
Later, he worked as editor of the Raleigh News and Observer. He was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for his weekly column. After his retirement, Sitton taught at Emory University, his alma mater. The collection contains Sitton's personal and professional papers, including correspondence, printed materials, speeches and writings. The correspondence, by-lines and columns, and speeches date from the period after Sitton left The New York Times. The scrapbooks, though, contain clippings of his work from the late 1950s and early 1960s.
"Will the Circle Be Unbroken?: An Audio History of the Civil Rights Movement in Five Southern Communities and the Music of Those Times" is an awarding-winning radio documentary. Produced by the Southern Regional Council (SRC), it chronicles the struggle to end segregation in Atlanta, Georgia, Columbia, South Carolina, Jackson, Mississippi, Little Rock, Arkansas, and Montgomery, Alabama.
While other civil rights documentaries concentrate on national leaders and national organizations, "Will the Circle Be Unbroken?" focuses on "the essential local character of the places and people who collectively became the Movement." In order to capture the undocumented side of the movement, the producers conducted over a hundred of original interviews with civil rights activists and combed through archives all across the country for oral histories and other materials. "Will the Circle Be Unbroken?" aired on Public Radio International (PRI) affiliates across the country in 1997, and it won a prestigious George Foster Peabody Award the same year.
The "Will the Circle Be Unbroken?" program files consist of interview transcripts, audiovisual materials, scripts, program research files, and production files. The largest part of the collection is made up of materials related to the interviews, including tapes and transcripts of interviews conducted by the SRC as well as transcripts and tapes from other archival repositories. The program research files consist of inventories of archival collections, correspondence with archival repositories as well as historical materials, including biographical sketches, chronologies, notes, newspaper clippings, articles, excerpts from books, and guides for each city. The production files relate to the production and administration of documentary. Of particular interest in this series are the comments from listeners about the documentary as well as the station carriage lists, which list the stations that carried "Will the Circle Be Unbroken?" in the United States.
Activist and education, Richard Lee Stevens, arrived in Atlanta during the 1960s when he enrolled in Georgia Institute of Technology. He was active in the peace, civil rights, and student movements in the Gate City and across the South.
In 1965 he became director of the Southern Student Human Relations Project, U.S. National Student Association. The collection consists of pamphlets, newspaper clippings, news bulletins, periodicals, and handbills related to the anti-war and civil rights movements as well as the war of poverty.
Until its division in 1981, the "old" 5th Circuit had jurisdiction over the six states in the South. The 5th Circuit served as the federal appellate court one level below the Supreme Court, and it comprised the country's largest and busiest Constitutional court during the civil rights movements. The Tuttle judicial papers include correspondence, docket books, records relating to court administration, case files and opinions, and a small number of personal papers. The majority of the case files begin in 1965-1966. However, there are some case files from earlier civil rights cases such as Meredith v. Fair and Armstrong et al. v. Board of Education of the City of Birmingham.
The papers of Emory history professor Bell Wiley contain research materials for his books and articles and materials from his courses relating to African American history. Series 2: Writings—Books contains Wiley’s notes and collected research material for his books, including Slaves No More. Series 5: Teaching Files contains lecture notes for his courses on the Civil War and the role of African Americans in America. Series 6: General Research Files contains collected research materials relating to African Americans and other Civil War topics and microfilms of the Freedmen’s Bureau records that Wiley obtained from the National Archives. Series 6 also has Wiley’s handwritten notes from his interviews with former slaves (1932-1934) and photographs of the former slaves he interviewed (Box 2, folder 32). The collection also includes files on African American soldiers in World War II and Korea (Series 1: Personal Papers). Other materials relating to African Americans are scattered throughout this large collection.