All of these terms refer to an article written by a professional researcher or academic scholar who is considered an expert in their field and is published in an academic journal. Academic journals are a periodical publication that publish scholarship typically related to a specific academic field/discipline, such as history or biology. Academic journals grew out of the communications between scholars and 17th century scholar societies. For more information on this history see this Scientific American blog post.
Academic journals typically are peer-reviewed, also known as refereed, which means it has been evaluated for accuracy before publishing by a group of experts in the field. (Look at the peer-review tab for a more in-depth discussion of this process)
Not all "scholarly" articles need to be peer reviewed in order to be considered reliable, academic articles. Many journal publications have an editorial board that reviews articles for accuracy and authority before publishing. While scholarly journals may typically use the peer review process, a journal does not need to use peer review in order to be considered scholarly.
Sources for research generally fall in to three broad categories:
Academic writing can can fall into any of these categories. When doing research think about what information you need and if the source type is meeting that need.
There are several types of articles that you will encounter in your research. Sometimes your professor may even ask you to find a certain type of article for a project. Knowing what kind of article you are looking at can help you determine if the article will be helpful for your research and what kinds of information it will provide. Some of the most common article types:
Here are several other types of academic publications that can be used in academic research. These types of writing have varying lengths, level of details, and time frames for publication.