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Citing Resources

This guide is intended to help Oxford College students with citation.

Digital Resources

Citing personal photos, digital files, or other electronic resources can be confusing. The important thing to remember is that everything you use for academic or professional work, even if you made it yourself, does need to be cited - every time! Click on the tabs above to see some commonly cited items in each style. Remember to follow the indentation guidelines of your chosen style.

Some URL Notes from Purdue OWL:

Link Icon

  • Many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI (digital object identifier). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI number instead of the URL.
  • Online newspapers and magazines sometimes include a permalink, which is a shortened, stable version of a URL. Look for a “share” or “cite this” button to see if a source includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL.

 

If you have a question or need to cite something not listed here, schedule a consultation with a librarian!

Icons are from the Noun Project and under Creative Commons licence (CCBY): link by Nathan Diesel, Video by Aybige, Audio by Manasa, Image by Mohammad Iqbal, hashtag by Gregor Cresnar

Digital Resources in MLA Style: How Do I Cite...

In MLA style, any links you include should not have the http:// portion of the URL.

If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.Play Button Icon

Garofalo, Vanessa. "How to Avoid Plagiarism in 5 Easy Steps." YouTube, uploaded by Modern Librarian Memoirs, 5 April 2018, www.youtu.be/WV2-cmi19sg.

“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.

Make sure to list as much information as possible to help your user find the file - if information such as record label or producer are unavailable from your source, do not list them.Speaker Icon

Song

Zuckerman, Jeremy. "To Heal." 22 July 2015. SoundCloud, www.soundcloud.com/jeremy-zuckerman/to-heal.

Personal Interview

A personal interview is one that you have conducted yourself - the "author" is the interviewee. For other interviews, see the Purdue OWL Guide.

Crowl, Paige. Personal interview. 12 July 2019.

Podcast

"3 - Station Management." Welcome to Night Vale from NightValeRadio, 15 July 2012, www.radiopublic.com/welcome-to-night-vale-3GZp96/ep/s1!0c606.

Personal PhotoPhoto Icon

Remember to get the permission of all the people in the photo (or their guardians, if minors) before you use it in your work!

Crowl, Paige. "Happy Spinach." 28 Feb. 2017. Personal collection.

Garofalo, Christopher. "CSCE Contributor Gift Table." SmugMug, 12 April 2019, www.christophervisuals.com/OxfordCollege/CSCE/i-wP8vMbB/A.

Online Photo or Image

If the image is on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author. If the image has no title, put a description instead, and don't use quotation marks or italics.

Williams, Maynard O. “An Ouled Nail woman in Algeria wears a tattoo that is customary for dancers, 1949.” Found, National Geographic Creative, 10 March 2016, www.natgeofound.tumblr.com/post/140802561912/an-ouled-nail-woman-in-algeria-wears-a-tattoo-that.

Cash, Ivan. "Infographic of Infographics." Imgur, 5 April 2011, www.imgur.com/DNxvj.

FacebookHashtag Icon

Oxford College Library. "Stop by the library until 2 pm today for some much-needed stress relief with our therapy dogs! @emoryoxford #stressrelief #therapydogs #oxlibrary #oxlib #oxfordcollegelibrary #oxfamily." Facebook, 2 May 2019, 7:47 a.m., www.facebook.com/OxLibrary/photos/a.146203117813/10158053777397814/.

Twitter

@OxLibrary. "Stop by the library THIS THURSDAY to get some much-needed stress relief with one of our therapy dogs in Room 230! FREE healthy snacks will be available in the Info. Commons! @EmoryOxford #oxlibrary #oxlib #oxfordcollegelibrary #oxfamily #destress #studybreak #therapydogs." Twitter, 30 Apr. 2019, 10:41 a.m., www.twitter.com/OxLibrary/status/1123281357071843328.

Instagram

@oxfordcollegelibrary. "Stop by the library until 2pm today for some much needed stress relief with our therapy dogs! @emoryoxford #stressrelief #therapydogs #oxlibrary #oxlib #oxfordcollegelibrary #oxfamily." Instagram, 2 May 2019, www.instagram.com/p/Bw9srvdFLzl.

Purdue OWL MLA Style and Format Guide

MLA OWL

This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. Check here for help citing more resources or make an appointment with an Oxford librarian!


Digital Resources in APA Style: How Do I Cite...

Some of the examples used here are from the APA Style Blog post on How to Cite Social Media in APA Style.

If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.Play Button Icon

Garofalo, V. [Modern Librarian Memoirs]. (2018, April 5). How to avoid plagiarism in 5 easy steps [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/WV2-cmi19sg

CrazyRussianHacker. (2016, June 6). 8 hot dog gadgets put to the test [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/WBlpjSEtELs

Make sure to list as much information as possible to help your user find the file - if information such as record label or producer are unavailable from your source, do not list them.Speaker Icon

Song

Zuckerman, J. (2015, July 22). To heal [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://soundcloud.com/jeremy-zuckerman/to-heal

Personal Interview

A personal interview is one that you have conducted yourself - the "author" is the interviewee. Note that APA style does not require a reference to a personal interview.

Crowl, P. (2019, July 12). Personal interview.

Podcast

Night Vale Presents. (Producer). (2012, July 15). Station management. Welcome to Night Vale. [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://radiopublic.com/welcome-to-night-vale-3GZp96/ep/s1!0c606

Personal PhotoPhoto Icon

Remember to get the permission of all the people in the photo (or their guardians, if minors) before you use it in your work!

Garofalo, C. (Photographer). (2019, April 12). [CSCE contributor gift table] [Digital image]. Retrieved from https://www.christophervisuals.com/OxfordCollege/CSCE/i-wP8vMbB/A

Online Photo or Image

The title of the item for the reference comes from its caption, so if the image has no official caption, you will describe the item inside square brackets. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.

Williams, M. O. (Photographer). (2016, March 10). An Ouled Nail woman in Algeria wears a tattoo that is customary for dancers, 1949 [Digital image]. Retrieved from https://natgeofound.tumblr.com/post/140802561912/an-ouled-nail-woman-in-algeria-wears-a-tattoo-that

Cash, I. (2011, April 5). [Infographic of infographics] [Infographic]. Retrieved from https://imgur.com/DNxvj

Only include the first 40 words of the post/caption when citing a social media post in APA style.

FacebookHashtag Icon

Gaiman, N. (2012, February 29). Please celebrate Leap Year Day in the traditional manner by taking a writer out for dinner. It’s been four years since many authors had a good dinner. We are waiting. Many of us have our forks or chopsticks at the [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/neilgaiman/posts/10150574185041016

Twitter

Oxford Library [@OxLibrary]. (2019, April 30). Stop by the library THIS THURSDAY to get some much-needed stress relief with one of our therapy dogs in Room 230! FREE healthy snacks will be available in the Info. Commons! @EmoryOxford #oxlibrary #oxlib #oxfordcollegelibrary #oxfamily #destress #studybreak #therapydogs [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/OxLibrary/status/1123281357071843328

Instagram

Oxford College Library [@oxfordcollegelibrary]. (2019, May 2). Stop by the library until 2pm today for some much needed stress relief with our therapy dogs! @emoryoxford #stressrelief #therapydogs #oxlibrary #oxlib #oxfordcollegelibrary #oxfamily [Instagram photo]. Retreived from https://www.instagram.com/p/Bw9srvdFLzl/

Purdue OWL APA Style and Format Guide

APA OWL

This resource, updated to reflect the APA Handbook (6th ed.), offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the references page. Check here for help citing more resources or make an appointment with an Oxford librarian!


Digital Resources in Chicago Style: How Do I Cite...

Some of the examples used here are from the Purdue OWL guide to Chicago Style. As it is the more commonly used format, we have given examples here in the Notes and Bibliography variation. Please visit the Chicago Manual of Style's page on Author-Date for examples in that format!

Play Button IconNote/Bibliography

1. Vanessa Garofalo, "How to Avoid Plagiarism in 5 Easy Steps," April 5, 2018, Modern Librarian Memoirs, 3:39. https://youtu.be/WV2-cmi19sg.

Garofalo, Vanessa. "How to Avoid Plagiarism in 5 Easy Steps." April 5, 2018. Modern Librarian Memoirs, 3:39. https://youtu.be/WV2-cmi19sg.

 

Make sure to list as much information as possible to help your user find the file.Speaker Icon

Song - Note/Bibliography

1. Jeremy Zuckerman, To Heal, Soundcloud, 2015, Audio file.

Zuckerman, Jeremy. To Heal. Soundcloud. Audio file.

Personal Interview - Note

Chicago style does not recommend a bibliography entry for a personal interview.

1. Alex Smith (retired plumber) in discussion with the author, January 2017.

Podcast - Note/Bibliography

1. Sean Cole and Ira Glass, “622: Who You Gonna Call?,” August 4, 2017, in This American Life, produced by WBEZ, podcast, MP3 audio, 1:00:27, accessed October 31, 2017, https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.

Cole, Sean and Ira Glass. “622: Who You Gonna Call?.” Produced by WBEZ. This American Life. August 4, 2017. Podcast, MP3 audio, 1:00:27. Accessed October 31, 2017. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.

In Chicago style, information about art pieces is usually given in the text, not the bibliography. If an entry is needed, use these guidelines.

Personal Photo - Note/BibliographyPhoto Icon

Remember to get the permission of all the people in the photo (or their guardians, if minors) before you use it in your work!

1. Christopher Garofalo, CSCE contributor gift table, April 12, 2019, Digital Image, SmugMug, www.christophervisuals.com/OxfordCollege/CSCE/i-wP8vMbB/A.

Garofalo, Christopher. CSCE contributor gift table. April 12, 2019. Digital image. www.christophervisuals.com/OxfordCollege/CSCE/i-wP8vMbB/A.

Online Photo or Image - Note/Bibliography

If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.

1. Maynard Owen Williams, An Ouled Nail woman in Algeria wears a tattoo that is customary for dancers, 1949, March 10, 2016, Digital image, NatGeoFound, natgeofound.tumblr.com/post/140802561912/an-ouled-nail-woman-in-algeria-wears-a-tattoo-that.

Williams, Maynard Owen. An Ouled Nail woman in Algeria wears a tattoo that is customary for dancers, 1949. March 10, 2016.  Digital image. natgeofound.tumblr.com/post/140802561912/an-ouled-nail-woman-in-algeria-wears-a-tattoo-that.

The Chicago Manual of Style recommends limiting citations of social media content to the body of your work.

ExampleHashtag Icon

Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).

 

A note can be used for a formal citation in some cases, though this is rare.

Example - Note/Bibliography

1. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

Chicago Manual of Style Online

CMOS Icon

This resource, updated to reflect the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), offers examples of common citations in both style variations. Check here for help citing more resources or make an appointment with an Oxford librarian!