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Discovery Seminar – Tarver – Fall 2020

MLA Style

The MLA or Modern Language Association style of citation is broadly used in the language arts and humanities. The style is currently in its 8th edition.

Purdue OWL MLA Style and Format Guide

MLA OWL

This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. Check here for help citing more resources or make an appointment with an Oxford librarian!

  Citing Resources


Why do we need to cite resources that we get information from?

    To acknowledge that the information is from another source and is not our own.
     To give the reader necessary information to find the resource and do further research.
     To avoid plagiarism, or passing off the information as your own.

 

Icons are from the Noun Project and under Creative Commons licence (CCBY): books by sandra, article by Arfan Khan Kamol, website by Julynn B.

Books

BookMLA Style is designed to be flexible and adaptable to many kinds of sources - the citation format centers on the idea of "objects" and the "containers" they live in. Since books are self-contained, they don't usually have a "container" element - this makes them one of the easiest things to cite in MLA.

 

Some example citations are below, from the Purdue OWL MLA Guide. Follow the link for more examples!

How To Cite...

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.

Noble, Safiya U. Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York University Press, 2018.

Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

Pratchett, Terry, and Neil Gaiman. Good Omens. Workman, 1990.

List only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names.

Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004.

Harris, Muriel. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rafoth, Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34.

Smale, Maura A. "Always a Novice: Feminist Learning and Leadership Practice." Feminists Among Us: Resistance and Advocacy in Library Leadership, edited by Shirley Lew and Baharak Yousefi, Library Juice Press, 2017, pp. 7-27.

Articles

 

MLA Style is designed to be flexible and adaptable to many kinds of sources - the citation format centers on the idea of "objects" and the "containers" they live in. The container of an article is usually the journal, magazine, etc it was published in.

 

 

 

Some example citations are below, from the Purdue OWL MLA Guide. Follow the link for more examples!

How To Cite...

McAninch, David. "Seeing France’s Wild Mountains Through a Clouded, Classic Windshield." New York Times, 15 July 2019. nyti.ms/2GgMdkK. Accessed 16 Jul 2019.

Brubaker, Bill. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients." Washington Post, 24 May 2007, p. LZ01.

In Print

Duvall, John N. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise." Arizona Quarterly, vol. 50, no. 3, 1994, pp. 127-53.

From an Online Database

Budd, John M. “Public Libraries, Political Speech, and the Possibility of a Commons.” Public Library Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 2, Apr. 2019, pp. 147–159. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/01616846.2018.1556232.

Krasikov, Sana. "What Children Remember From the War." Review of Last Witnesses: An Oral History of the Children of World War II, by Svetlana Alexievich. New York Times, 13 July 2019, nyti.ms/2JyKt8y. Accessed 15 July 2019.

Weiller, K. H. Review of Sport, Rhetoric, and Gender: Historical Perspectives and Media Representations, edited by Linda K. Fuller. Choice, Apr. 2007, p. 1377.

Websites

Website IconMLA Style is designed to be flexible and adaptable to many kinds of sources - the citation format centers on the idea of "objects" and the "containers" they live in. A website itself is a container, so think of pages on a website like chapters of a book.

 

Citing a web-based resource? MLA style recommends that you include your date of access, as the content may change over time.

 

Some example citations are below, from the Purdue OWL MLA Guide. Follow the link for more examples!

How To Cite...

Mission and Vision - Oxford College Library - Emory University. Oxford College Library, oxford.library.emory.edu/about/About-Oxford/mission-vision.html. Accessed 15 July 2019.

Manila, Ashley. “Coconut Cream Pie Smoothie Recipe.” eHow, ehow.com/how_12343061_coconut-cream-pie-smoothie.html. Accessed 15 July 2019.

"Libraries = Strong Communities: Celebrating National Library Week." Oxford Library Blog, Oxford College Library, 9 Apr. 2019, scholarblogs.emory.edu/oxford/events/libraries-strong-communities-celebrating-national-library-week/. Accessed 15 July 2019.

Images & Video


 

 

*Figures cited in-text must be both captioned and cited in the bibliography.

In-text citation:

(see fig. X)

(see fig. 3)

Caption:

*Include the bibliographic information, while replacing periods with commas.

Fig. X. Artist; Title; Creation Year; Institution, URL. (Licensing information/public domain information/fair use notation)

Fig. 3. Cézanne, Paul; Still Life with Apples and a Pot of Primroses; 1890; The Metropolitan Museum
          of 
Art, metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/435882. (Public Domain)

Fig. 5. Holley, LaurenAtlanta Streetcar; 2014; Flickr, flickr.com/photos/atlantadowntown/16106577510/.
         
(CC BY 2.0)

Bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of the work. YearWebsite publisher, URL.

Cézanne, Paul. 
Still Life with Apples and a Pot of Primroses. 1890The Metropolitan Museum of

Art, metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/435882.


Frequently asked questions

Image has no known author?

Omit the author's name, and start with the title:

Still Life with Apples and a Pot of Primroses. 1890The Metropolitan Museum

         of Art, metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/435882.

No creation date?

Include an access date instead:

Cézanne, Paul. Still Life with Apples and a Pot of Primroses. The Metropolitan Museum of

Art, metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/435882. Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.

Are you citing an image reproduced in a website article?

Read this post from the MLA Style Center for formatting guidelines.

Have you modified the image?

Fig. 3. Adapted from Artist; Title; Creation Year; Institution, URL.

Fig. 3. Adapted from Paul Cézanne; Still Life with Apples and a Pot of Primroses; 1890; The Metropolitan
          Museum of 
Art, metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/435882.

Read this post from the MLA Style Center for more information.

Are you using a video screenshot?

Fig. X. Still from Creator, Title of Video (minute:seconds).

Fig. 4. Still from Toledo Museum of Art, What is Visual Literacy? (4:31).

Read this post from the MLA Style Center for more information.

  MLA Video Citation Examples

 

YouTube & Streaming Video:

TitlePlatform, uploaded by Screen name, Day Month (abbreviated). Year, URL.

What is Information Literacy?.YouTube, uploaded by Modern Librarian Memoirs, 2 Nov. 2017, www.youtube.com/watch?v=hbe6xBibOL4.

 

 

 


 

Audio

Speaker IconMLA Style is designed to be flexible and adaptable to many kinds of sources - the citation format centers on the idea of "objects" and the "containers" they live in. The person who created the audio file is the "author". The MLA recommends that "if the work has no creator—for example, if the file records children at a park singing “Happy Birthday” or dogs barking—leave the author element blank."

 

Some example citations are below, from the MLA Style Center. Follow the link for more examples!

How To Cite...

MLA Jug Band. “Handbook Hootenanny.” MP3 file, created 6 Apr. 2017.

Recording of dogs barking. MP3 file, created 5 Feb. 2011.

Salinas, Lois. Recording of live reading of Beowulf. 10 Jan. 2017. WAV file.

Chicago Style

From the Chicago Manual of Style Quick Guide:

Chicago style source citations come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date.

  • The notes and bibliography system is preferred by many working in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes.
  • The author-date system is more common in the sciences and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication.

If you know you need to use Chicago style but are unsure what variation to use, ask your professor, or talk with a librarian.

Chicago Manual of Style Online

CMOS Icon

This resource, updated to reflect the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.), offers examples of common citations in both style variations. Check here for help citing more resources or make an appointment with an Oxford librarian!

Icons are from the Noun Project and under Creative Commons licence (CCBY): books by sandra, article by Arfan Khan Kamol, website by Julynn B.

Books

Book Icon

 

Some example citations are below, from the Chicago Manual of Style Online. As it is the more commonly used format, we have given examples here in the Notes and Bibliography variation. Please visit the Chicago Manual of Style's page on Author-Date for examples in that format!

How To Cite...

Note/Bibliography

1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.

Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.

Note/Bibliography

2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Note/Bibliography

3. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.

Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.

Articles

Article IconSome example citations are below, from the Chicago Manual of Style Online. As it is the more commonly used format, we have given examples here in the Notes and Bibliography variation. Please visit the Chicago Manual of Style's page on Author-Date for examples in that format!

From the Chicago Manual of Style Online:

If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”).

How To Cite...

 

Note/Bibliography

1. Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times, March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

2. Rebecca Mead, “The Prophet of Dystopia,” New Yorker, April 17, 2017, 43.

Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

Mead, Rebecca. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.

In Print - Note/Bibliography

1. Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.

Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.

From an Online Database - Note/Bibliography

2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

Note/Bibliography

1. Michiko Kakutani, “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges,” review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith, New York Times, November 7, 2016.

Kakutani, Michiko. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.

Websites

Website Icon

 

Some example citations are below, from the Chicago Manual of Style Online. As it is the more commonly used format, we have given examples here in the Notes and Bibliography variation. Please visit the Chicago Manual of Style's page on Author-Date for examples in that format!

 

 

Please note that in Chicago Style, the URL of an online resource is always included.

How To Cite...

Note/Bibliography

1. “Mission and Vision - Oxford College Library - Emory University,” Oxford College Library, accessed July 25, 2019, https://oxford.library.emory.edu/about/About-Oxford/mission-vision.html.

Oxford College Library. “Mission and Vision - Oxford College Library - Emory University.” Accessed July 25, 2019. https://oxford.library.emory.edu/about/About-Oxford/mission-vision.html.

Note/ Bibliography

2. “Libraries = Strong Communities: Celebrating National Library Week,” Oxford College Library, accessed July 25, 2019, https://scholarblogs.emory.edu/oxford/events/libraries-strong-communities-celebrating-national-library-week/.

Oxford College Library. “Libraries = Strong Communities: Celebrating National Library Week.” Accessed July 25, 2019. https://scholarblogs.emory.edu/oxford/events/libraries-strong-communities-celebrating-national-library-week/.

Make sure to list as much information as possible to help your user find the file.Speaker Icon

Song - Note/Bibliography

1. Jeremy Zuckerman, To Heal, Soundcloud, 2015, Audio file.

Zuckerman, Jeremy. To Heal. Soundcloud. Audio file.

Personal Interview - Note

Chicago style does not recommend a bibliography entry for a personal interview.

1. Alex Smith (retired plumber) in discussion with the author, January 2017.

Podcast - Note/Bibliography

1. Sean Cole and Ira Glass, “622: Who You Gonna Call?,” August 4, 2017, in This American Life, produced by WBEZ, podcast, MP3 audio, 1:00:27, accessed October 31, 2017, https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.

Cole, Sean and Ira Glass. “622: Who You Gonna Call?.” Produced by WBEZ. This American Life. August 4, 2017. Podcast, MP3 audio, 1:00:27. Accessed October 31, 2017. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/622/who-you-gonna-call.