For any research project, you want to use a variety in types of sources as well as points of view. Some assignments will have certain requirements for the sources, in terms of genre of source (academic, popular), format (blog, print) and publication dates. You may need a variety of sources, both in type and point of view, in order to research a question in-depth.
In discussing the usefulness of different types of sources, we will use the BEAM method, developed by Joseph Bizup. This method can be helpful when addressing the way in which you intend to use a source in an annotated bibliography.
|Source Function||Explanation||Examples||Common Locations|
|Background||Factual and noncontroversial information, providing context||
Encyclopedia articles, overviews in books, statistics, historical facts
|Exhibit/Evidence||Data, observations, objects, artifacts, documents that can be analyzed||
Text of a novel, field observations, focus group transcriptions, questionnaire data, results of an experiment, interview data (primary sources)
|Body, Results section|
|Argument||Critical views from other scholars and commentators; part of the academic conversation||Scholarly articles, books, critical reviews (e.g. literacy criticism), editorials||
Body, sometimes in Introduction or in Literature Review
|Method (or Theory)||Reference to methods or theories used, usually explicit though may be implicit; approach or research methodology used||
Part of books or articles with reference to theorists (e.g. Foucault, Derrida) or theory (e.g. feminism, post-colonialism, new historicism etc.); information on a research methodology
|Methods section or referenced in Introduction or Body|
A source may serve more than one function. For instance, a journal article could include background information, exhibits, argument and method. However, some sources are focused on a single function. For example, an encyclopedia entry on “Alzheimer's disease” is likely to only serve as background information.
Hayden, W. & Margolin, S. (n.d.). How to use a source: The BEAM Method. Hunter College Libraries. https://library.hunter.cuny.edu/research-toolkit/how-do-i-use-sources/beam-method. (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)
UC Merced Library: https://libguides.ucmerced.edu/beam; (CC BY-NC 4.0)